Short Summaries of the Uniform Structure Principle, the MLF Model and the 4-M Model

(See curriculum vitae for information about the references cited.)

The Uniform Structure Principle (USP)

Embedded Language (EL) islands, phrases from other varieties participating in the clause, are allowed if they meet EL well-formedness conditions, but also ML conditions applying to the clause as a whole (e.g. phrase placement).

See curriculum vitae for information about Myers-Scotton, 2002; 2005c for evidence that the USP applies in classic CS.

The Matrix Language Frame (MLF) Model Summarized

The MLF model applies only to bilingual clauses. (Codeswitching, of course, also occurs between clauses or sentences and across discourse turns.) The model was intended to apply to varieties that are not mutually intelligible; if it applies to dialects, that is a bonus. Myers-Scotton, 1993 ( Duelling Languages ) introduces the model, but later publications give a truer picture of the model as it stands today (for example, see the "Afterword" in the 1997 edition of Duelling Languages , or—better, see Contact Linguistics , 2002 and later journal articles or chapters in edited volumes. (See curriculum vitae for details.) In summary -- Under the MLF model, (a) Participating languages do not play equal roles in structuring the bilingual clause; (b) not all morpheme types in bilingual constituents within this clause can come equally from the ML and EL; (c) Most importantly, the System Morpheme Principle limits the occurrence of the morphemes that build clausal structure to coming only from the ML (the outsider late system morphemes).

The 4-M Model Summarized