: 3839 Fossum Lane, Okemos MI 49964. Phone:
: c/o Department of Linguistics and
Germanic, Slavic, Asian and African Languages, Michigan
State University, East Lansing, MI 48848-1035.
Also, c/o African Studies Center, Michigan State
University, Phone: 517-353-1700.
Adjunct Professor, Department of Linguistics and
Slavic, Oriental, and African Languages, Michigan State
Visiting Scholar, African Studies Core Faculty, African
Studies Center, (MSU).
Emerita Professor, Interdepartmental Program in
Linguistics, and Department of English,
University of South Carolina. Carolina Distinguished
A.B. with honors, 1955. Grinnell College, Grinnell,
Certificate in French & French Phonetics, 1959. The
Sorbonne, University of Paris.
M.A. (English), August 1961. University of Wisconsin,
Ph.D. (Linguistics), January 1967. University of Wisconsin,
Dissertation Title: "Some Semantic and Syntactic Aspects of
Swahili Extended Verb Forms"
Multiple voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism
Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Contact Linguistics: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical
. (2002). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Social Motivations for Codeswitching: Evidence from Africa
(1993). Oxford: Oxford University Press (Clarendon Press).
Paperback edition 1995.
Duelling Languages: Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching
(1993). Oxford: Oxford University Press (Clarendon Press).
Second edition (1997) with new "Afterword".
. (1981). Three-volume set of grammatical
and cultural materials and teacher's manual. Prepared for
U.S. Peace Corps. Republished 1982: Michigan State
University African Studies Center. (Co-author: Gregory J.
Choosing a Lingua Franca in an African Capital
(211 pp., Monograph Series in Sociolinguistics). Edmonton:
Linguistic Research, Inc.
Codes and Consequences: Choosing Linguistic Varieties
(ed.) (1998). Also author of "Introduction" pp. 3-17 and
two other chapters (see below). New York: Oxford
Special issue of
International Journal of Bilingualism
(2001). Title: "Testing a model of morpheme classification
with language contact data". (Co-editor of issue with
Janice L. Jake; co-author of "Introduction")
Articles in Press:
2007. The grammatical profile of L1 speakers on the
of potential language shift. To appear 2007. In Barbara
Kõpke, Monika Schmid, Merel Keijzer, & Susan Dosert, eds.).
Language attrition: Theoretical perspectives. Amsterdam:
2007. Codeswitching. To appear 2007? In Nikolas Coupland
and Adam Jaworski, eds. The sociolinguistics reader.
2007. Universal structure in code-switching and bilingual
language processing and production.
To appear 2008? In Barbara Bullock & Almeida Jacqueline
Toribio, eds. Handbook of code-switching. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. (with Janice L. Jake).
2007. Codeswitching. To appear 2008? In Patrick Hogan,
ed. The Cambridge encylopedia of the language sciences.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2007. Patterns and predictions for codeswitching with
Arabic. To appear 2008? In Reem Bassiouney, ed. Arabic and
the media. Publisher?
2007. Explaining outsider system morphemes in language
contact. To appear 2008 in special issue of Journal of
Language Contact. Electronic format.
Articles ( book chapters (generally refereed) and refereed
2007. The grammatical profile of L1 speakers on the stairs
of potential language shift. To appear 2007. In Barbara
Kõpke, Monika Schmid, Merel Keijzer, & Susan Dosert, eds.).
Language attrition: Theoretical perspectives, pp. 69-82.
2006a. Natural codeswitching knocks on the laboratory
door. Bilingualism, Language & Cognition 9, 2: 203-212.
(Special issue, Albert Costa & David Green, eds.)
2006b. How codeswitching as an option empowers bilinguals.
In J.A.Neff,-Van Aertselaer, M.Pütz, & J.A.Fishman (eds.)
Along the routes to power, pp.73-86. Berlin: Mouton de
2005a. A reply to MacSwan: A Matrix Language still needed.
Bilingualism, Language and Cognition 8,3 (with Janice L.
Jake, and Steven Gross).
2005b. Supporting a differential access hypothesis:
Codeswitching and other contact data. In Judith L. Kroll &
A De Groot (eds.), Handbook of Bilingualism,
Psycholinguistic Approaches, pp. 326-48. New York: Oxford
2005c. Uniform Structure: Looking beyond the surface in
explaining codeswitching. Special issue on codeswitching,
Italian Journal of Linguistics/Rivista di Linguistica 17:
2005d. Embedded language elements in Acholi/English
codeswitching. Language Matters 36: 2-18.
2004a. Precision tuning of the Matrix Language Frame (MLF)
Model of Codeswitching. Sociolinguistica 18: 110-17.
2004b. Predicting and explaining codeswitching and
grammatical convergence across linguistic varieties.
Journal of Chinese Sociolinguistics 2: 1-17.
2003a. The out-of-sight in codeswitching and related
contact phenomena. In Lorezna Mondada & Simona P.Doehler
(eds.), Plurilinguisme, Mehlsprachigkeit, &
Plurlilingualism. 221- 33. Tübingen & Basel: A. Francke.
(with Janice L. Jake).
2003b. Code-switching: Evidence for both flexibility and
rigidity in language. In Jean-Marc Dewaele, Alex Housen
& Li Wei (eds.), Blingualism: Beyond Basic Principles.
189-203. Clevedon, UK: Multilngual Matters.
2003c.What lies beneath: Split (mixed) languages as contact
phenomena. In Yaron Matras & Peter Bakker (eds.), The
mixed language debate: Theoretical and empirical advances,
pp. 73-106. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2002a. Making a minimalist approach to codeswitching work:
Adding the Matrix Language. Bilingualism, Language and
Cognition 5: 69-91. (with Janice L. Jake and Steven Gross).
2002b. Second generation shifts in sociopragmatic
orientation and codeswitching patterns. In Aleya Rouchdy
(ed.), Language contact and language conflict in Arabic,
pp. 317-30. London: Routledge. (with Janice L. Jake).
2002c. Frequency and intentionality in (unmarked/marked
choices in codeswitching: "This is a twenty-four hour
country". International Journal of Bilingualism 6: 205-19.
2001a. Explaining aspects of codeswitching and their
implications. In Janet Nichol (ed.), One mind, two
languages: Bilingual language processing , pp. 84-116.
Oxford: Blackwell. (with Janice L. Jake).
2001b.Why bilingualism matters. American Speech 75. 290-91.
2001c.The matrix language frame model: Developments and
responses. In Rodolfo Jacobson, (ed.) Codeswitching
Worldwide II , pp. 23-58. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
2001d. Calculating speakers: Codeswitching in a rational
choice model. Language in Society 30. 1-28. (with Agnes
2001e. Implications of abstract grammatical structure: Two
targets in creole formation. Journal of Pidgin and Creole
Languages 16. 217-73.
2000a. Comparing verbs in Swahili/English codeswitching
with other data sets. In Kulikoyela Kahigi,Y.Kihore, & M.
Mous, (eds.), Lugha za Tanzania, pp. 203-214. Leiden:
2000b. Four types of morpheme: Evidence from aphasia, code
switching, and second-language acquisition. Linguistics
38.1053-1100. (with Janice L. Jake).
2000c. What matters: The out of sight in mixed languages.
Bilingualism, Language and Cognition 3. 119-21.
2000d. Three approaches to language contact. Rivista di
Linguistica 11. 367-86.
1999a. Putting it all together: the Matrix Language and
more. In Bernt Brendemoen, E. Lanza & E. Ryen (eds.),
Language encounters across time and space, pp.13-28. Oslo:
1999b. Chicheëa and 'Do' constructions in codeswitching.
In Rosalie Finlayson (ed.), African Mosaic, pp. 406-17.
Pretoria: University of South Africa Press. (with Janice L.
1999c. Explaining the role of norms and rationality in
codeswitching. Journal of Pragmatics 32. 1259-71.
1998a. Orderly mixing and accommodation in South African
codeswitching. Journal of Sociolinguistics 2.395-420.
(with Rosalie Finlayson and Karen Calteaux).
1998b. A theoretical introduction to the markedness model.
In C. Myers-Scotton (ed. see above), Codes and
consequences, pp. 18-38. New York: Oxford University Press.
1998c. Marked grammatical structures: Communicating
intentionality in The Great Gatsby and As I Lay Dying. In
C.Myers-Scotton (ed. see above), Codes and consequences, ,
pp. 62-88. New York: Oxford University Press.
1998d. Codeswitching and the nature of lexical entries.
Plurilinguismes 14. 219-46. (with Janice L. Jake).
1998e. A way to dusty death: The Matrix Language turnover
hypothesis. In Lenore Grenoble & L. Whaley (eds.),
Endangered Languages, , pp. 289-316. Cambridge: Cambridge
1998f. Rational actor models and linguistic choices. In
Language, linguistics, and leadership, Joseph O'Mealy, H.
& L. Lyons (eds.), pp. 76-88. Honolulu: University of
Hawai'i and East-West Center Press.
1998g. Compromise structural strategies in codeswitching.
In Guus Extra & L. Verhoeven (eds.), Bilingualism and
migration, , pp. 211-228. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
1997a. Codeswitching and compromise strategies:
Implications for lexical structure. International Journal
of Bilingualism 1. 25-39. (with Janice L. Jake).
1997b. The structure of Tsotsitaal and Iscamtho: Code
switching and in-group identity in South African
townships.. Linguistics 35. 317-42. (with Sarah Slabbert).
1997c. Rational actor models and social discourse analysis.
In Emilia R.Pedro (ed.), Discourse Analysis, Proceedings of
the First International Conference on Social Discourse
Analysis, , pp.177-99. Lisbon: Edicoes Colibri/Associacao
Portuguesa de Linguistica.
1997d. Relating interlanguage to codeswitching: The
Composite Matrix Language. Proceedings, the 1996 Boston
University Conference on Language Development, pp. 319-30.
Brookline, MA: Cascadilla Press. (with Janice L. Jake)
1997e. On safari with sociolinguistics. In G. Richard
Tucker & C.B. Paulston (eds.), The Early Days of
Sociolinguistics, pp.189-99. Arlington, TX: Summer
Institute of Linguistics.
1997f. Structural uniformities vs. community difference in
codeswitching. In Rodolfo Jacobson (ed.), Codeswitching
Worldwide pp. 91-108. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
1997g. 'Matrix Language choice' and 'Morpheme sorting' as
possible structural strategies in
pidgin/creole formation. In Arthur Spears & D. Winford
(eds.), Pidgins and Creoles: Structure and status, , pp.
151-74. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
1997h. Codeswitching. In Florian Coulmas (ed.), Handbook
of Sociolinguistics, pp. 217-37. Oxford: Blackwell.
1996a. Arabic and constraints on codeswitching. In Mushira
Eid & Dilworth Parkinson (eds), Perspectives on Arabic
linguistics IX, pp.9-43. Amsterdam: Benjamins (with Maha
Okasha and Janice L. Jake).
1996b. Afterword. (Comments on papers given at Symposium on
Code-Mixing). World Englishes 15.395-404.
1995a. Matching lemmas in a bilingual language competence
and production model: evidence from intrasentential code
switching. Linguistics 33: 981-1024. (with Janice L. Jake).
Reprinted in Li Wei (ed), The bilingualism reader, pp.
281-320. London: Routledge.
1995b. A lexically-based production model of codeswitching.
In Lesley Milroy & Pieter Muysken (eds.), One speaker, two
languages: Cross-disciplinary perspectives on
code- switching, 233-56. Cambridge: Cambridge University
1995c. Language processing and the mental lexicon in
bilinguals. In Rene Dirven & J. Vanparys (eds.), New
approaches to the lexicon, pp.73-100. Frankfurt: P. Lang.
1995d. What do speakers want? Codeswitching as evidence of
intentionality in linguistic choices. In Pamela Silberman
and J. Loftin (eds.), Salsa 2, Papers from Symposium about
Language and Society at Austin, pp. 1-17. Austin: Univ of
Texas Dept of Linguistics.
1993a. Common and uncommon ground: Social and structural
factors in codeswitching. Language in Society 22.475-503.
1993b. English loans in Shona: Consequences for linguistic
systems. International Journal of the Sociology of Language
100/01.125-48. (with Janice Bernsten).
1993c. Elite closure as a powerful language strategy: the
African case. International Journal of the Sociology of
1993d. Building the frame in codeswitching: evidence from
Africa. In Salikoko Mufwene & L.Moshi (eds.), Topics in
African Linguistics, pp.253-78. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
1992a. Constructing the frame in intrasentential
codeswitching. Multilingua 11.101-27.
1992b. Codeswitching in Africa: a model of the social
functions of code selection. Robert K. Herbert (ed.),
Sociolinguistics in Africa, , pp.165-80. Johannesburg:
University of the Witwatersrand Press.
1992c. Codeswitching as a mechanism of deep borrowing,
language shift, and language death. In Matthias Brenzinger
(ed.), Language Death in East Africa, , pp.31-58. Berlin:
Mouton de Gruyter.
1992d. Codeswitching as socially-motivated performance
meets structurally-motivated constraints. In Martin Pütz
(ed.), Thirty years of linguistic evolution, , pp. 417-28.
1992e. Comparing codeswitching and borrowing. Journal of
Multilingual and Multicultural Development 13. 19-39.
1992f. Sociolinguistics: An overview. South African Journal
of African Languages 12 (supplement 1).1-10.
1992g. Simplification: Not the best explanation for two
language changes in Nairobi Swahili. In Jan Blommaert
(ed.), Swahili Studies, Essays in Honour of Marcel Van
Spaandonck, , pp.45-56. Ghent: Academia Press.
1990a. Codeswitching and borrowing: interpersonal and
macrolevel meaning. In Rodolfo Jacobson (ed.),
Codeswitching as a Worldwide Phenomenon, pp.85-110. New
York: Peter Lang.
1990b. Accounting for structure in Swahili/English
codeswitching. Working Papers in Kiswahili No. 9. Ghent:
State University Ghent (Belgium) Seminar for Swahili. 22 pp.
1990c. Elite closure as boundary maintenance: the evidence
from Africa. In Brian Weinstein (ed.), Language Policy and
Political Development, pp. 25-41. Norwood NJ: Ablex.
1990d. A frame-based model of codeswitching. In Michael
Ziolkowsi et al.(eds.), Papers from the 25th Regional
Meeting, Chicago Linguistic Society, , pp. 307-21. Chicago:
Chicago Linguistic Society. (with Shoji Azuma).
1989. Code-switching with English: switching types,
communities types. World Englishes 8.333-46.
1988a. Self-enhancing codeswitching as interactional power.
Language & Communication 8.199-211.
1988b. Differentiating borrowing and codeswitching. In
Kathleen Ferrara et al (eds.), Linguistic change and
contact: N-WAV XVI, pp.318-25. Austin TX: University of
Texas Department of Linguistics.
1988c. Codeswitching as indexical of social negotiation. In
Monica Heller (ed.), Codeswitching: Anthropological and
sociolinguistic perspectives, , pp.151-86. The Hague:
Mouton de Gruyter. Reprinted 2000. In Li Wei (ed.), The
bilingualism reader, pp.137-65. London: Routledge.
1988d. Patterns of bilingualism in East Africa. In
Christina Bratt Paulston (ed.) International handbook of
bilingualism and bilingual education, pp. 203-24. Westport
1988e. Codeswitching and types of multilingual communities.
In Peter Lowenberg (ed.), Georgetown University Round Table
on languages and linguistics 1987, . pp. 61-82.
Washington: Georgetown University Press. 61-82.
1988f. Natural conversations as a model for textbook
dialogue. Applied Linguistics 9.372-84. (with Janice
1986. Diglossia and codeswitching. In Joshua A. Fishman et
al. (eds.), The Fergusonian Impact, Vol.2, , pp. 403-15.
Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
1985. What the heck, sir? Style shifting and lexical
colouring as features of powerful language.
In Richard L. Street Jr. and J.N. Cappella (eds.), Sequence
and Pattern in Communicative Behavior, pp. 103-19. London:
1984a. The multiple meanings of Shi.fu in Chinese: a
semantic change in progress. Anthropological Linguistics
26.326-44. (with Zhu Wanjin).
1984b. Conversational expression of power by television
interviewers. Journal of Social Psychology 123.261-71.
(with Heidi Owsley)
. 1983a. Comment: markedness and code choice. International
Journal of the Sociology of Language 39.119-28.
1983b. The negotiation of identities in conversation: a
theory of markedness and code choice. International Journal
of the Sociology of Language 44.11
. 1983c. Tongzhi in Chinese: conversational consequences of
language change. In Language in Society 12.477-94. (with
Zhu Wanjin). Translated into Chinese for Readings in
1982a. Learning lingua francas and socio-economic
integration: evidence from Africa. In Robert L. Cooper
(ed.), Language spread, . pp. 63-94. Bloomington, Ind.:
Indiana University Press.
1982b. An urban-rural comparison of language use among the
Luyia in Kenya. International Journal of the Sociology of
1982c. The linguistic situation and language policy in
Eastern Africa. In Robert B. Kaplan (ed.), Annual Review of
Applied Linguistics,. pp. 8-20. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury
1982d. What about powerful questions? In Schneider,
Robinson et al. (eds.), Papers from parasession on
non-declaratives, Chicago Linguistic Society, pp.
219-27.(with H. Owsley).
. 1982e. The possibility of codeswitching: motivation for
maintaining multilingualism. Anthropological Linguistics
1981. Extending inalienable possession: the argument for
an extensive case in Swahili. Journal of African Languages
and Linguistics 3.159-74.
1980. Explaining linguistic choices as identity
negotiations. In Howard Giles et al. (eds.), Language,
Social Psychological Perspectives, pp. 359-66. Oxford:
1979a. National and personal ambition in language choice.
In Edgar Polome et al. (eds.), Studies in Honor of A.A.
Hill (Vol. IV), , pp. 361-69. The Hague: Mouton.
1979b. The context is the message: syntactic and semantic
deletion in Nairobi and Kampala varieties of Swahili. In
Ian Hancock (ed.), Readings in Creole Studies,. pp.111-28.
1979c. Codeswitching as a 'safe choice' in choosing a
lingua franca. In William McCormack & S. Wurm (eds.),
Language and Society, pp. 71-88. The Hague: Mouton.
1978. Language in East Africa: Linguistic patterns and
political ideologies. In Joshua A. Fishman (ed.), Advances
in the study of societal multilingualism, , pp.719-60. The
1977a. Linguistic performance as a socioeconomic indicator.
Journal of Social Psychology 102.35-45.
1977b. Review article: Language in Kenya. Language
1977c. Linguistic performances as subjective measure: some
findings and implications. Studies in African Linguistics
8, supplement. 199-210.
. 1977d. Bilingual strategies: the social function of
codeswitching. International Journal of the Sociology of
Language 13.5-20. Also in Linguistics 193. (with William
Ury). Reprinted in Zhu, Wanjin (ed.) 1985. She-hue
u-ian-xue i uen ji (Edited Translations on
Sociolinguistics), pp.199-217. Peking University Press.
199-217. Also reprinted in Raith, Joachim et al. (eds.)
1986. Grundlagen der Mehrsprachigkeitsforschung (Basic
Research in Multilingualism), pp. 163-82. Stuttgart: Franc
1976a. The role of norms and other factors in language
choice in work situations in three African cities (Lagos,
Kampala, Nairobi). In R. Kjolseth & A. Verdoodt
(eds.),Language and Society, pp. 201-32. Louvain: editions
1976b. Strategies of Neutrality: Language choice in
uncertain situations. Language 52.919-41.
1975a. Multilingualism in Lagos--what it means to the
social scientist. Ohio State Working Papers in Linguistics
1975b. Loan words and the borrowing process in two Ateso
dialects. Journal of the Language Association of Eastern
1973. Neighbors and lexical borrowings: a study of two
Ateso dialects. Language 49.871-89. (with John Okeju).
1972. Loan word integration in Ateso. Anthropological
1971. Towards a linguistic theory of choosing a lingua
franca. Studies in African Linguistics 1, supplement
1969. The perception of Swahili of two up-country groups
of speakers. Swahili 39.101-11.
1967. Semantic and syntactic subcategorization in Swahili
causative verb shapes. Journal of African Languages
1965. Some Swahili political words. Journal of Modern
African Studies 3.527-42.
Book Reviews (only very recent ones listed)
2007. Reply to review of Contact Linguistics (2002) by
Davies & Bentahila. Language in Society 36, 3: 459-462.
2006. Review of Language contact and grammatical change by
Bernd Heine and Tania Kuteva. 2005. Cambridge University
Press. In Journal of English Linguistics 34: 1-4.
Major Academic Grants/Honors (post-phd):
6/2004-11/2005. National Science Foundation
Division) "Steps in Grammatical Turnover/Shift". Principal
Investigator. Field work in South Africa and data analysis.
8/05. Invited instructor, Linguistics Institute,
5/96- 5/2003. Carolina Distinguished Professor (of
Linguistics), University of South Carolina..
6-7/03. Invited instructor, Summer LSA Linguistics
Institute, MSU, East Lansing, MI.
6-7/2000. University of South Carolina College of Liberal
Arts, CLASS grant.
1/99. Invited instructor, Consortium of Dutch Universities
"Winter School", Amsterdam.
7/98. Invited instructor, Australian Linguistics
Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
5/97-12/97. University of South Carolina All-University
Venture Fund Grant.
4/94-4/97. National Science Foundation (Linguistics
Division). "Congruency in codeswitching and the nature of
lexical entries." Field work and analysis. (Principal
Investigator with Janice L. Jake).
6/95. Distinguished Alumni Award, Grinnell College,
5/95. Human Sciences Research Council Research Award,
Republic of South Africa.. (Support for month of research
in South Africa).
1993-94. Russell Research Award (College of Humanities and
Social Sciences), University of South Carolina.
1993-94. Outstanding Graduate Teacher Award, Graduate
English/Linguistics Club, University of South Carolina.
1992-93. University of South Carolina Research and
Productive Scholarship Grant.
1988. Social Science Research Council Grant. Nine weeks
sociolinguistic fieldwork, Kenya and Zimbabwe.
1988-89. University of South Carolina Research and
Productive Scholarship Grant.
6-7/86. Director, Intensive Swahili Language Pedagogy
Institute, Michigan State University. Students: ten Swahili
instructors from U.S. universities and colleges. Topic:
current second language acquisition theory and applications
to Swahili teaching. (Funded by U.S. Department of
1984. MSU Research Completion Grant. Analysis of data on
urban dialects of Swahili and Shona: Patterns of borrowing
universals in pidginization processes.
1983. Fulbright Research Grant.. Kenya and Zimbabwe to
study urban dialects and simplification as an urban
phenomenon (in reference to hypotheses concerning language
universals). Seven months.
1980. Project director, ACTION contract #79-043, 1033 to
prepare Chicheëa grammar teaching materials for Peace Corps
1997. Joint Committee on African Studies of the American
Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science
Research Council. 10 weeks sociolinguistic research in
1970-71. American Association of University Women
1968-70. East African Language Survey (Ford Foundation).
Sociolinguistic research in Kampala and field study of
borrowing in Ateso.
Teaching and Other Academic Experience (post-phd):
Fall 2005. Graduate Seminar in Bilingualism.
of South Carolina (USC).
August 2005. Week-long "Linguistics summer school"
Spring 2004. Advanced undergraduate class "Language in
June-July 2003. LSA Summer Linguistics Institute, Michigan
State University. Invited to teach three-week course
August 1986-May 2003. Professor of Linguistics and
English, appointed in Department of English, University of
South Carolina. (Teaching graduate courses in
sociolinguistics, language contact, and discourse, and
undergraduate courses in linguistics).
Director, USC Interdepartmental Linguistics Program,
September--November 1992. Visiting Fellow, Max-Planck
Institut für Psycholinguistik, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
(Consulting with the language production group).
January 1989--May 1989. Visiting Professor, Department of
Linguistics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas. (Teaching
graduate courses in sociolinguistics).
September 1976--July 1986. Professor, Department of
Linguistics and Germanic, Slavic, Oriental, and African
Languages, Michigan State University. (Appointed Professor
1980. Teaching graduate and undergraduate courses in
sociolinguistics and African linguistics).
September 1982--January 1983. Visiting Professor,
Department of Foreign Languages, Peking University,
Beijing, the People's Republic of China.
September 1974--June 1976. Associate Professor, Department
of Anthropology, Yale University. (Appointed Associate
Professor 1975. Teaching graduate and undergraduate courses
October 1973--August 1974. Analysis and writing up of data
on patterns of language use in Lagos, Nigeria. American
Philosophical Society Grant. On-going research on Swahili
July 1972--October 1973. Lecturer, Department of
Linguistics and African Languages. University of Nairobi,
Kenya. (Teaching undergraduate general linguistics,
sociolinguistics, Swahili structure).
Academic year 1971-72. Research Fellow, University of
Lagos, Nigeria. Data gathering on language use patterns in
Lagos. Study of Pidgin English in Lagos.
Academic year 1970-71. Research Fellow, American
Association of University Women. Analyzing and writing up
data on language use patterns in Kampala, Uganda. On-going
research on Swahili syntax.
July 1968--July 1970. Lecturer and Head, Subject of
Linguistics and African Languages, Makerere University,
Uganda. Establishing and directing program and teaching
undergraduate courses in general linguistics.
September 1966--February 1968. Assistant Professor,
African Studies program, Howard University, Washington,
D.C. (Teaching graduate and undergraduate courses in
Swahili, African linguistics and general linguistics).
Recent Major Presentations:
Three lectures, Free University of Berlin, 5/07.
Lecture, University of Flensburg, Germany, 5/07.
Main speaker, Second International Conference on Attrition,
Public lecture, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South
Keynote Speaker, 30th biennial LAUD conference. Landau,
Invited speaker in lecture series on Bilingualism.
University of Wales, Bangor. 3/04.
Main Speaker, 2nd International Conference on Chinese
Sociolinguistics. Macau Technical College, Macau, People's
Republic of China. 11/03.
Main speaker, Workshop on Codeswitching, Deutsche
Gesellschaft für Sprachwissenschft. University of
Mannheim, Germany. 2/02.
Main speaker, International Conference on Migration and
Multilingualism, University of Bayreuth, Germany. 11/2001.
Keynote speaker, International Colloquium in Codeswitching
and Dialect Accommodation, University of Hamburg, Germany.
Plenary speaker, Second International Symposium on
Bilingualism. Univ of Newcastle, Newcastle, England. 4/99.
Main speaker, International Symposium on Language Policy,
Bar-Ilan University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. 11/99.
Plenary Speaker, Australian Linguistic Society annual
meeting. Brisbane 7/98.
Recent Major Conference Presentations:
"Predicting which language supplies what in bilingual
speech." Invited workshop on codeswitching, Ohio State
University. 12/07. (with Janice L. Jake).
"Beyond classic codeswitching: colloquium." 6th
International Symposium on Bilingualism. Hamburg, Germany.
5-6/07. Co-organizer with Janice L. Jake.
"Patterns and prospects for codeswitching with Arabic."
Conference on Arabic and the Media. University of Utah,
"Why outsider system morphemes are hard to borrow." Invited
conference on language contact, Max Planck Institute for
Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany. 5/07.
"Abrupt or gradual? Grammatical aspects of potential
language shift in Xhosa-English bilinguals." Conference on
Bantu languages, School of Oriental and African Languages,
University of London, 4/06. (with Janice L. Jake).
"Fanakalo: Origins and relation to creoles." Annual
conference Pidgin and Creole society. Albuquerque, 1/06.
"A step model of grammatical aspects of language shift."
5th International Symposium on Bilingualism, Barcelona,
"The grammatical abruptness of language shift: Why
creolists should care." Society for Pidgin and Creole
Linguistics, annual conference, Oakland CA 1/05.
"Why second language researchers should pay attention to
language contact data." SLRF (Second Language Research
Forum). Penn State University, University Park PA. 10/04.
"Intersections between the Markedness Model and Relevance
Theory." 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism".
Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 5/03.
"Nonfinite verbs in Acholi/English codeswitching." 4th
International Symposium on Bilingualism. Tempe AZ. 5/03.
(with Janice L. Jake).
"Creole formation and the divide in morpheme types."
Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, annual meeting.
Atlanta GA. 1/03.
"Codeswitching in African urban communities." Congress of
International Applied Linguistics Association. Singapore
"Sources of inflection: testing the creole system morpheme
hypothesis." Society for Pidgin and Creole Linguistics,
annual conference. San Francisco CA. 1/02. (with Janice L.
"Constraints in bilingual speech: You can't just say what
you want to say." NWAV annual conference. Raleigh NC 10/01.
(with Janice L. Jake).
"The inside story on mixed languages." Invited
presentation, Mixed Language Workshop, Manchester
University, England. 12/00.
"Minimalism meets Matrix Language: Variation in
codeswitching". NWAV annual conference. East Lansing MI
10/00. (with Janice L. Jake).
"Negotiating an identity through codeswitching: 'This is a
24-hour country'." International Pragmatics Association,
annual meeting. Budapest. 7/00.
"Only early system morphemes need apply." Society for
Pidgin and Creole Linguistics, annual meeting. Chicago
1/00. (with Janice L. Jake).
"Codeswitching within a minimalist framework." Linguistic
Society of America, annual meeting. Chicago 1/00. (with
Janice L. Jake).
Major Academic Interests:
(1) All aspects of bilingualism, but especially
contact phenomena (e.g codeswitching).
(2) Types of morphemes and constraints on their
distribution in both monolingual and bilingual phenomena.
(3) Models of grammar and language production (as related
to studies of the structural constraints on language
contact phenomena (especially codeswitching).
(4) General sociolinguistics. Sociolinguistic theory and
field methodology; interpersonal negotiations and
linguistic choices; national language policies;
multilingualism; pidgins and creoles; language spread.
(5) Discourse analysis and stylistics (both literary texts
and natural conversation). Socio-pragmatics.
(6) Study of African languages, particularly with regard to
(a) multilingualism and related issues, (b) language
policies, (c) genetic and areal classification.
Specialization: Swahili and the Bantu group of languages in
Fieldwork in Linguistics:
Africa: Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 10 months, 1964-65;
Kampala, Uganda (with some rural fieldwork), 24 months,
1968-70; Lagos, Nigeria, 9 months, 1971-72; Nairobi, Kenya,
13 months, 1972-73; rural Western Kenya and Nairobi, 2 1/2
months, 1977; Malawi, 3 months, 1980; Kenya, 2 weeks, 1980;
Nairobi, Kenya, 4 months, 1983; Dar es Salaam, 1 week,
1983; Harare, Zimbabwe, 6 weeks, 1983; rural Western Kenya
and Nairobi, 4 weeks, summer 1988; rural Zimbabwe and
Harare, Zimbabwe, 5 weeks, summer 1988; urban South Africa,
4 weeks, 1995; Kampala, Uganda, 5 weeks, summer 1995; urban
South Africa, 7 weeks 2004, 2 weeks, 2005.